With the gradual increase of passenger and freight traffic in China, the mileage of highways in China has been extended, and the cost of highway construction cannot be ignored in this process. In order to achieve effective control of the cost of road pavement engineering mechanized construction projects, cost management should be strengthened to ensure the cost input of the project works, and then ensure the ultimate benefit of the construction enterprise.
The cost management and control of highway engineering mechanized construction is a complex project, in its specific management process requires the participation of all personnel in the enterprise, and the construction of the key elements of comprehensive control, through the control of many aspects, to ensure that the actual cost of the project is not higher than the target cost, so as to promote the healthy development of road engineering mechanized construction enterprises.
2 Road mechanization construction cost impact factors
2.1 Equipment use efficiency
Equipment use efficiency is one of the important influencing factors of road mechanization construction cost, there are many problems will affect the use efficiency of equipment, these problems mainly include: incorrect operation mode of machinery operators, relatively poor site environment, unsuitable equipment selection, etc.. Equipment use efficiency will have a direct impact on the construction progress of construction enterprises, and indirectly related to construction costs, so we need to improve the use efficiency of equipment to ensure that construction costs are not affected by it.
2.2 Equipment completeness rate
Equipment integrity rate mainly refers to the equipment is not damaged by external factors. To ensure that the equipment is intact, it can save the enterprise a large amount of money needed to repair the equipment, and thus improve the economic efficiency of the enterprise. Equipment integrity rate is affected by the equipment use, equipment maintenance and equipment storage conditions and other factors, we need to analyze these factors, and reasonable control of these factors, so as to ensure the integrity of equipment.
2.3 Equipment utilization rate
Equipment utilization rate refers to the percentage of the actual use time of the equipment in each year to the planned use time, that is, the efficiency of the use of equipment, which is a technical and economic index reflecting the working condition and production efficiency of the equipment. Equipment utilization rate is mainly affected by two factors: on the one hand, equipment configuration, for example, in the construction of no reasonable configuration of equipment, so that too few excavators and too many loaders, which will produce construction nesting, and then adversely affect the construction cost; on the other hand, the construction conditions will also have an impact on the equipment utilization rate, for example, soil changes in the earth will affect the efficiency of excavators, the corresponding The loader efficiency is also implicated.
3 Cost management principles of road mechanization construction project
3.1 Mutual balance
In order to ensure the stable development of construction enterprises, the relationship between construction progress, quality and cost needs to be handled scientifically, and the construction quality, efficiency and construction cost are mutually influenced and constrained by each other. Shortening the construction period and improving the construction quality can reduce the construction cost for the construction enterprise, while if the construction progress is not reasonably grasped it will increase the construction cost. If quality problems occur in the construction process, so that the project has to stop, this will cause the extension of the construction period, and in order to solve this construction quality problem, the enterprise needs to increase the cost of expenditure, which makes its development is therefore somewhat hindered. So in the cost management of road mechanization construction we should always adhere to the principle of mutual balance, so that quality, cost and progress are in a balanced state, so as to achieve the maximum economic benefits of the enterprise.
3.2 Whole process management
The cost control of highway pavement construction project is inextricably linked with the whole project cycle, which runs through the whole project engineering, that is, from the preparation stage of the project until the completion stage of the project engineering. In order to realize the effective control of the cost of highway pavement engineering project, we must carry out cost management for each cycle of the project and ensure the quality of cost management work at each stage, so as to ensure the cost input of the project engineering as a whole, and formulate the corresponding construction plan, if we want to effectively ensure the cost of the construction of highway pavement engineering project, we must carry out the construction according to the formulated plan.
4 Problems of highway mechanized construction cost management
4.1 Low maintenance of construction machinery and equipment
Some construction units in China do not pay enough attention to the repair and maintenance of machinery and equipment, resulting in the discovery of equipment safety hazards in a timely manner, so that the damage to equipment is increasing, which not only affects the quality and efficiency of construction, but also poses a threat to the safety of staff life. In addition, the equipment maintenance work is not in place, it will shorten the service life of the equipment, increase the cost of purchasing and repairing equipment, so that the benefits of the enterprise is not developed.
4.2 Management measures are not in place
Due to the lack of management measures in place, there is a serious waste of resources in construction?C machinery. This is directly related to the characteristics of highway construction, many points and long lines, the frequent transfer of personnel characteristics make the management of machinery lost, while there is also inadequate mechanical operators and other phenomena, mechanical management system is not perfect, these problems will affect the cost management in mechanized construction.
5 highway mechanized construction cost management measures
5.1 Adopt quantitative assessment system of shift
For the management of machinery should adopt the quantitative assessment system, the bonus of the machinery operator is linked to the workload of machinery or machinery operation time, through the bonus incentive system, so that the operation efficiency of machinery to maximize. In addition, since the implementation of the bidding system of China’s highway construction, each highway construction enterprise has a large change in the amount of work each year, in order to adapt to this change, highway construction enterprises should properly develop the internal and external machinery rental market, to ensure that the machinery and equipment in the enterprise can meet the engineering construction tasks at the same time, you can rent out the idle machinery by way of renting out and get the corresponding income; even in Equipment shortage, enterprises do not need to directly purchase a large number of machinery, but can be leased from outside the way, to solve the project demand for machinery and equipment, which on the one hand can reduce the investment in machinery and equipment, on the other hand, can also revitalize the enterprise’s mechanical resources, thereby improving the economic benefits of enterprises.
5.2 Strengthen the configuration management of construction machinery
5.2.1 Reasonable selection of the number and type of construction machinery
In line with the principle that less is better than more, according to the operational content of the construction, reasonably choose the construction machinery with large working capacity and high operational efficiency to improve the efficiency. A small number of types and quantities of construction machinery is conducive to their collaborative operation and easy to dispatch, maintain and manage, but we also need to consider the impact of single equipment on the construction progress and ensure two or more sets of equipment as far as possible, especially paving equipment, to avoid equipment failure stoppage affecting work efficiency.
5.2.2 Reasonable combination of technical performance of construction machinery
In the choice of construction machinery technical performance combination, need to pay attention to three aspects: first, the main and auxiliary machinery work capacity with the ratio, to make the appropriate supporting machinery work capacity, quantity and productivity slightly larger, to ensure that the main machinery production efficiency to give full play to; second, the main and auxiliary machinery productivity combination, auxiliary machinery productivity selection slightly larger, help improve the productivity of the main machinery; third. Traction machinery and other mechanical groups to do to adapt to the configuration can be, to avoid the phenomenon of large horse-drawn car.
In conclusion, the mechanized construction of highway pavement project has its own characteristics compared with the general highway construction project, so according to the characteristics of the project, the construction unit should develop a scientific construction program and cost management program to achieve effective control of costs, so as to ensure the economic benefits of the construction unit to the maximum extent.